UK Statutory Accounts
As necessitated by the Companies House and the HMRC, all limited companies registered in the UK are required to arrange financial accounts to be submitted annually by their ARD, or accounting reference date. The ARD is the ending date of the 12-month financial year for the limited company. The HMRC uses the annual accounts to determine the company must pay in Corporation tax in relation to their taxable profits. What are Statutory Accounts? A statutory account is a series required accounting documentation that is submitted yearly for the purpose of corporate taxation by the HMRC. Furthermore, it is often used to confer to shareholders the health and profitability of the company, or indeed, lack thereof. A statutory account is comprised of a number of elements including a balance sheet, a profit and loss ledger, a cashflow statements, notes, and a director’s report. Below, we go into a bit more depth regarding each of these elements.
The Difference Between Management and Statutory Accounts To the unfamiliar eye, management and statutory accounts may conflate. The primary and most important difference is that Statutory accounts (as indicated by its name) are mandatory. Management accounts, while useful and a key aspect of running a well-maintained and profitable business, can be used (or not) in any way one sees fit. Statutory accounts, on the other hand statutory accounts must conform to strict guidelines set forth by the relevant authorities.
This being the case, statutory accounts are follow a generalised template which make it easier for both shareholders and the HMRC to understand. These statutory accounts are not particularly useful for internal use within the company as they are produced for the purpose of general understanding of financial standings by third parties (as opposed to problem driven, detailed internal measurements of a management account). Another typical difference between management accounts and statutory accounts is frequency of which they are produced. A once a year statutory account is typically not enough for a director or management team to glean insights into the ongoing financial health of a company. Management accounts are typically created quarterly or sometimes monthly, depending on the size of the company. Management accounts allow you to adjust the current inner workings of the company and plan strategies for future financial success.
how to prepare statutory accounts
Components of a Statutory Account As mentioned previously, a statutory account must contain all information required by the HMRC. Firstly, basic company information must be detailed. This basic information is relayed in the Cover Page, Contents Page, and Company Information page, before the separate accounts sections. 1) The cover page includes the name of the company, registration number, and the company’s year-end date 2) The contents page, as the name implies lists the section and page numbers of the separate sections of the statutory reports 3) The company information page will list the directors, accountant, lawyers, bankers and registered of the company. Once these formalities are taken care of, the following accounting documentation should be included. Balance sheet- A balance sheet is a ledger that indicates all of a company’s assets and debts up until the last day of the fiscal year. The balance sheet must have the name and signature of the director in order to be accepted. Profit and Loss Account-
The profit and loss account, in the simplest terms, expresses profits by deducting costs all revenue for the financial year. It is often subdivided into categories such as revenue my category or expenses for travel (for example) for easy analysis. The number at the very bottom is the most important, indicated net profit for the year. This is typically the earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (often shortened to the acronym EBITDA). Cashflow Statement- As indicated by its name, a cashflow statement is indented to document the flow of money into and out of a company. This can include returns on investment, money from operating activities, taxes, capital spending, and dividends. Notes- Notes may accompany many of the figures in the various accounting documents. The notes are intended to provide context to the otherwise static numbers. Director’s Report- The Director’s Report is the director’s opportunity to address management and shareholders and explain the numbers included in the Statutory Accounts. The director may take the opportunity to reflect on successes, shortcomings, and layout the vision for the upcoming financial year. Small, Dormant, and Micro-Sized Companies’ Account Exemptions Though all companies are required to file statutory accounts as a component of the Company tax return, the size and type of your company may offer some exceptions. For small companies with a turnover of less than £10.2 million, less than 50 employees, or £5.1 million or less on their balance sheet, an abbreviate version of the accounts can be filed to Companies House.
Micro entity accounts template
These abbreviated statutory accounts are comprised of only the balance sheet accompanied by notes. The directors report is optional and an exemption can be filed to prevent the auditing of company accounts. If the company has a turnover of less than £632,000, £316,000 or less on its balance sheet, or fewer than 10 workers, it qualifies as a micro-entity. Micro-entities are able to prepare even simpler accounts, send only balance sheets with even less information, and benefit from the same exceptions as small businesses. Dormant companies also qualify for exceptions. A company is considered dormant if it has not completed any significant transactions during the financial year, not including filing fees paid to Companies House, fees resulting from penalties incurred for late filing, or money paid for shares during the incorporation of the company.
If the company is both dormant and small, only abbreviated accounts need to be filed and accounts are not required to be audited. Limited company accounts template and statutory Accounts Example Using the internet, it is possible to find pre-made accounting templates to assist with the creation of your Statutory Accounts. One free and useful site can be found here. A comprehensive example of how a well drafted statutory account filing should look like can be found here. Limited Company Accountants for Small Business Although the process is generalised, filing annual accounts for a limited company can be time consuming and costly. Many companies opt to utilize the services of limited company accountants to ease the process. For a small fee, a qualified specialist can aid your limited company with comprehensive knowledge of accounts processes. This also shields you and your company from costly common mistakes that may cost you in both precious time and avoidable fees.